White Citizens’ Council brochure from the Birmingham, Alabama chapter….the Ku Klux Klan for all intents and purposes. The Citizens’ Councils (also known as White Citizens’ Councils) were an associated network of American white supremacist organizations. The first was formed on July 11, 1954. After 1956, it was known as the Citizens’ Councils of America. With about 60,000 members, all over the United States, although mostly in the South, the groups were founded to oppose racial integration during the 1950s and 1960s, using intimidation tactics including economic boycotts, propaganda, and occasionally threats of violence against civil-rights activists. By the 1970s, following passage of federal civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s and stronger enforcement of rights by the federal government, the influence of the Councils had waned considerably. The successor organization to the White Citizens’ Councils is the Council of Conservative Citizens, founded in 1985.