This August 30, 1828 edition of the National Intelligencer has 7 slave ads. One advertises a FORTY DOLLARS REWARD for a 17 or 18-year-old named William. “He is of a bright yellow complexion…his hair nearly straight; is an excellent house servant and waiter, and unusually smart and intelligent for one of his color.” Another advertises FIFTY DOLLARS REWARD for SYE. “When he left home had a swollen face and a cut finger occasioned from an attack made by him on his overseer a few days before he absconded. His wife is living in Washington City, with Mr. John Baker, who hires Continue reading
This September 6, 1828 edition of The National Intelligencer (Washington D.C.) has a total of 5 slave ads. The first offers “FORTY DOLLARS REWARD” for “my Negro Woman, LETTY BROWN, taking with her, her two children, Bob and Dave…she is about 35 or 40 years of age. Bob is about 7 years of age…and carries his head on one side. Dave is about two years of age, of a yellow complexion…he has, also, a scar on the right or left arm, just above the elbow, occasioned by a burn which he received a few days before he was taken from my residence. The said woman and her children were taken off on Sunday night…by a yellow man of George Calvert’s, living near Bladensburgh, who calls himself Tarlton Brown, and who owns her as his wife.” Continue reading
This 1914 deed is for the transfer of a house in Jefferson County, Kentucky. While no address is given, the lot is listed (including deed book and page number). This deed is through the Louisville Title Company. The deed states that “said property shall never be sold or leased to any person or persons of African descent.” Parties involved
In Chapter 5 titled “Patterns of Immigration”, this 2016 World Geography textbook from McGraw Hill says “The Atlantic Slave Trade between the 1500’s and 1800’s brought millions of workers from Africa to the southern United States to work on agricultural plantations.” It also says “One of the defining attributes of the United States is that it is largely a country of immigrants and their descendants. About 13 percent of people in the United States are foreign born, while Native Americans, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians make up about 2 percent of the population. The remaining population is descended from immigrants.” Here is the story of how everything “hit the fan” when an African-American mother looked carefully at her son’s Continue reading
This 1949 advertisement for the movie “Lost Boundaries” measures 10″x 6.5″ and appears to be for a theater in Alexandria, Virginia. It says, “If he revealed his secret it would blast four lives wide open!! So out-of-the-ordinary, you’ll HAVE TO SEE IT TO BELIEVE IT!”
Atlanta banned the film under a statute that allowed its censor to prohibit any film that might “adversely affect the peace, morals, and good order of the city”. Memphis did so as well, with the head of the Board of Censors saying: “We don’t take that kind of picture here.” Continue reading
This stereo view of a black girl with watermelon continues the odd pairing of black folk with watermelon. It states, “Did you say watermelon was no good? Give me liberty and watermelon! Let the pampered epicure rave over a French ragout, a Chinese bird’s nest soup, or lobster a la Newburg, we piccaninnies believe in the simple life and watermelon. Give us a Continue reading
This 1915 postcard features a young black child holding a watermelon with a grin on his face (continuing the odd pairing of black folk with watermelon). The postcard states “Nigger Heben”. It has a postal stamp from April 14, 1915 in Norfolk, Virginia. Continue reading
This program was handed-out at the silver anniversary Oklahoma Conference of Branches, NAACP on November 17 and 18th 1955. The legendary T.M.R. Howard and Thurgood Marshall were the featured speakers. The theme was “INTEGRATION”.
Howard moved into the national limelight as never before after the murder of Emmett Till in August 1955 and the trial of his killers, J. W. Milam and Roy Bryant in September. He delivered “[o]ne of the earliest and loudest denunciations of Till’s murder,” saying that if “the slaughtering of Negroes is allowed to continue, Mississippi will have a civil war. Negroes are only going to take so much.” He was also heavily involved in the search for evidence and gave over his home to be a “black command center” for witnesses Continue reading
These 1965 and 1966 Thunderbolt Newspapers are among the most severe of the racist material in this collection. One article states, “If King comes marching through your town, get out in the streets with the old rebel yell and rebel flag. He’ll go running out of town back to Atlanta.” Thunderbolt newspaper was mentioned during the trial of infamous Ku Klux Klansman Tommy Blanton. Blanton was convicted Continue reading
This 1892 stereo view of African-Americans picking cotton says “Away down among “de Cotton and de Coons” and appears to say that the photo is from Louisiana. Continue reading
This 1950’s pamphlet “Freedom, the South, and Nonviolence” was published by Fellowship of Reconciliation. It is a plea for funding to support those boycotting the buses in Montgomery, Alabama. It states, “In the immediate present, it has been demonstrated dramatically by thousands of Negroes in Montgomery, Alabama, as they have trudged the streets of that city, and organized a complicated system of carpools, rather than submit any longer to segregation on the city’s buses. India’s millions, led by Gandhi, and Montgomery’s thousands, led by twenty-six Negro clergymen, have demonstrated how nonviolent resistance operates at its best….Where such campaigns begin, send your own words of encouragement and support to its leaders. Let them know that you understand their goals and their methods, and that you are praying for their success. The knowledge that thousands of other Americans are with them can mean a great deal to men and women surrounded by hostility and Continue reading
This 1954 racist “Christian” desegregation brochure by John R. Rice is titled “Negro and White”. In it, the author states (regarding the lynching of Emmett Till) “That colored boy, who attempted to…seduce the…white woman, was spurred on by widespread feeling, a cocky attitude agitators have cultivated among colored people. Remember…a white woman dare not walk the streets alone at night or go anywhere alone at night because of the animosity and the standards of the large negro population….It makes for cases of murder and rape. It makes for some…cases in which offended white men, even good men, take the law in their own hands.” Continue reading
This September 6th, 1825 edition of the National Intelligencer (in Washington DC) contains 3 particularly heartbreaking runaway slave ads. The first is a “$100 DOLLARS REWARD” for BEN, and states “He can write a pretty good hand, and no doubt has copied the papers of some free man; and I have reason to believe he stole the Stafford County seal and attached the impression of it to his papers. He carried with him three of his daughters, the property of my neighbor, Moses Kendall, and a Negro Man, the husband of one of Continue reading
This 1960’s Monson Motor Lodge brochure advertises the hotel where Martin Luther King was arrested and also where the hotel manager famously poured acid in the pool where an interracial group was protesting the segregation Continue reading
This 1956 brochure contains the speech “Mixed Schools and Mixed Blood” by Herbert Ravenel Sass. It states “Herbert Ravel Sass, author, presents the fundamental case for the white South. A native of Charleston, South Carolina, an independent, and an Episocpalian, Mr. Sass is imbued with a tradition which he believes is based on unchanging truth. His argument goes to the very heart of the controversy: Would integrated schools lead to mixed blood?”
The brochure is published by The Educational Fund of the Citizens’ Councils of Greenwood, Mississippi.
This flyer from the 1940’s advertises a “Jitterbug Contest and Swing Session” at the Civic Auditorium in San Francisco, California. The brochure lists the contestants with the “Colored Contestants” listed separately. Continue reading
The Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s was highly controversial in many black churches, where the minister preached spiritual salvation rather than political activism. The National Baptist Convention became deeply split; J.H. Jackson, President of the National Baptist Convention, had supported the Montgomery bus boycott of 1956, but by 1960 he told his denomination they should not become involved in civil rights activism. Jackson’s vocal stance for “civil rights through law and order” went in direct opposition to the methods of civil disobedience advocated by King.
A group led by Gardner C. Taylor including Martin Luther King, Sr and Jr.; Ralph David Continue reading
This 1956 pamphlet titled “Interposition, the Barrier Against Tyranny” is a speech of Representative John Bell Williams (D-Miss.) in the United States House of Representatives on January 25, 1956. Interposition refers to the right of the states to protect their interests from federal violation deemed by those states to be dangerous or unconstitutional. Citizens’ Councils (which were considered a more civilized version of the Ku Klux Klan) famously defended segregation (and before that slavery) by teaching “Interposition and Nullification”.
This brochure was printed by the Association of Citizens’ Councils of Mississippi in Greenwood, Mississippi.
This 1964 “National Rally” flyer advertises Gerald L.K. Smith speaking at the Large Embassy Auditorium at 9th and Grand in Los Angeles, California on April 30th, 1964. On the flyer it states that he will discuss “The significance of Governor Wallace of Alabama, who is rapidly becoming a white man’s champion. Will the Negro become America’s ‘sacred cow’? Will the Jewish politicians and their ilk be able to combine minorities for political victory in such a way as to enslave and abuse the great white Christian majority of America?
This 1950’s anti-NAACP brochure contains four pages of fear-mongering designed to discredit the NAACP by associating the civil rights organization with communism. It refers to “…its devious way to bring America down to stark mulattoism. A negroid-nation is the aim of both–which is but another way of saying Negro-Supremacy.”
This March 13, 1855 edition of the New York Tribune includes an article about an advertisement for “Negro Dogs.” It states, “I would inform the citizens of Holmes County that i still have my NEGRO DOGS and that they are in good training and ready to attend to all calls of hunting and catching RUNAWAY NEGROES at the following rates. For hunting per day, five dollars Continue reading
This is a 1936 cancelled check from Lee Bank & Trust Company. The check shows “Nigger Head Rock” in the corner. Today, that area in Penington Gap, Virginia is referred to as “Stoneface” (changed in the 1970’s).
This is the May 5, 1845 Lynchburg Virginian containing four slave advertisements and 1 runaway ad. Continue reading
This is a 1937 letter from the Fort Valley Normal and Industrial School in Fort Valley, Georgia. The letterhead states “Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools For The Training of Colored Youth“.
It states, “I thank you for your letter of the 27th inst. to Principal H.A. Hunt and I write to inform you that there is a motion picture theatre in Fort Valley which provides entertainment for the colored people here.”
V.J. Woodward, Secretary
1954 “Black Monday” brochure is the printed version of a speech by Judge Tom P. Brady (of the Fourteenth Circuit Court District Brookhaven, Miss) denouncing the 1954 Landmark Brown vs. Board of Education desegregation decision. This brochure was published by the Mississippi Citizens’ Council. Note the quote, “We do know the negro has, in certain instances, elliptical blood cells, which cause disease. We do know that his skull is one-eighth inch thicker…”
This is the front page of the May 13, 1963 issue of the Winnipeg Free Press newspaper featuring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. with American “Stars and Bars” artistically creating a jail cell. This was based on his historic incarceration in Birmingham (the month before) where he penned the “Letter from Birmingham Jail”.
Two Fayette County, Alabama Democratic ballots from 1941 and 1956. Note the logo of the chicken and the “WHITE SUPREMACY….FOR THE RIGHT” banner used by the Democratic Party at the time. The official overtly racist logo of the Alabama Democratic Party was adopted in 1904 and not replaced until 1966.
The 1956 ballot shows the notorious Eugene Bull Connor as candidate for “Delegate to National Democratic Convention”.
Other than photos of my wife and children, this is perhaps my most meaningful possession. When I learned of the murder of Emmett Till (which many historians cite as the unofficial beginning of the Civil Rights Movement), I was devastated in an unhealthy way. Even to this day, I have never stopped thinking about Emmett and the men who were never brought to justice…even though he was murdered many years before I was born. I poured-out my heart in a letter to his mother, Mamie Till-Mobley expressing the burden I had about her son’s death. In the letter, I committed to telling others about Emmett. Receiving this response from Mrs. Till-Mobley did more for me than words can express. She passed away in 2003.
An undeniable sign of the times, this 1970 board game “Blacks & Whites” says (on the bottom cover) “Experience the ghetto. Live on welfare. Try to buy in a white suburb. Your challenge: To keep the land-hungry majority type from winning the game cheaply and quickly.” It also says “…if Black players turn the tide against white advantages–a kind of irrepressible excitement takes over the board.” Continue reading
This typed letter was SIGNED by the infamous segregationist Governor George C. Wallace on June 5, 1964, while Governor of the State of Alabama. In this anti-Civil Rights document, we such quotes as “…As you know I am currently running in Presidential Primaries throughout the country and already have received an overwhelming protest vote against the Civil Rights bill…I believe that the majority of the people of this country do not wish to see this bill passed…“
COMPLETE newspaper, the Dallas Morning News dated Sept 5, 1957. Front page headline and famous photo of Elizabeth Eckford and Hazel Bryan Massery. One of the most infamous photos of the Civil Rights Movement, it came to symbolize the vehement (and sometimes violent) rejection of integrated schooling by whites. Eckford was one of the “Little Rock Nine” who integrated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas after the President sent the 101st Airborne to escort the nine African American children into the school (after the Governor of Arkansas called out the Arkansas National Guard to prevent their entry). Click here to see autograph of Hazel Bryan Massery. Newspaper was Continue reading
This 382 page book is in good condition for being 115 years old. The author is Charles Carroll who claimed that blacks are more akin to apes than to human beings, and theorized that blacks had been the “tempters of Eve.” Carroll said that mulatto brutes were the rapists and murderers of his time (pp. 167, 191, 290-202) and that they should be killed. You will notice (in the photo) a red cloth bookmark; I’m not sure if it’s original, but it matches perfectly. The rebuttal to this book Is the Negro A Beast? was published in 1901 and is also in this collection (see “Racism” category).
This is a large realty investment document dated for April 1928, for the purchase of a house in Bannock County, Pocatello, Idaho. The document shows age discoloration and has been folded in quarters, still in nice shape. There is a notation at the bottom of the document that the buyer of the property agrees to never sell the lot or assign the contract to a Negro, Chinaman, or Japanese. There appear to be 5 signatures, including the Notary Public and the Ex-Officio Recorder. Continue reading
This segregationist leaflet was distributed by “The Defenders” of Richmond, Virginia. It depicts U.S. soldiers “forcing” integration on school children. Approximately 4″x4″ on light card stock. Based on the date of Sep 26, 1957, this leaflet is assuredly based on President Eisenhower ordering the 101st Airborne to excort the “Little Rock Nine” to Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas (an all-white school) after Governor Faubus order the National Guard to keep the black children out of the school. The leaflet credits the “Union Leader” newspaper of Manchester, NH as the original source for the cartoon.
Is the Negro a Beast?: A Reply to Chas. Carroll’s Book Entitled “The Negro A Beast”, Proving that the Negro is Human from Biblical, Scientific, and Historical Standpoints. Written by William G. Schell, this book is a refutation of the scurrilous book The Negro A Beast or In the Image of God?, apparently popular in Southern US around the turn of the century, which attempted to justify the enslavement of those of African descent, since they “weren’t really human.” The controversial book that this book is refuting is also available in this collection (see other post in the “Racism” category).
This is a set of 6 railroad passes–5 for “John Williams and wife” (it says he was a “colored brakeman” for the Missouri Pacific) and 1 railroad pass for Isaac M. Feygans (it says “colored laborer”). The word “colored” is next to the names. They are dated 1919, 1923, 1926 (2), 1928, and 1930. 5 passes are for the Missouri Pacific Railroad Company and 1 is for the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad Company Line. Notice on the front of the Feygans pass it does not permit blacks to ride on trains 1 and 2 (white only service) or visit the lounge car on trains 11 and 12 (whites only service) or use ANY sleeping car accomodations (similar racial restrictions on all of the passes). 5 passes (for the Williams family) are encased in a glass frame; it would be easy to open this frame and remove them if necessary. The 6th pass is separate and not framed.
This hard-to-find segregationist pin was worn by Southern Whites to protest an end to segregation (“Never Integrate”). In the 1960’s, violent and racist Sheriff Jim Clark (of Selma, Alabama) was always seen wearing his gun, billy club (to electrically shock nonviolent demonstrators), and this pin. Note the manufacturer name, symbol, and unusual stamp (on the inside) of pin. Continue reading
The heading of this postcard states “Martin Luther King at Communist Training school.” ON BACK: “Lower left, arms folded, is Abner W. Berry of the Central Communist Party. To King’s right, Aubrey Williams, pres. of the communist front SCEF, and Myles Horton, dir. Highlander Folk School for communist training at Monteagle, Tenn. Picture taken by secret counteragent during Red Workshop in race agitation.“
Another disgusting example of an alligator eating, or trying to eat, black children (see other similar items in the collection). The tale of the alligator is a letter opener; by pulling the head of the African-American child out of the alligator’s mouth, a pencil is revealed. The tail advertises the “Los Angeles Alligator Farm”. So much for the South having a monopoly on racism. Continue reading